Columns for the Platform Intraders

1.Column: “The Pluralistic Approach of Human Rights – A Limited Equalisation” (INTRADERS Platform, 2021)

Column published on the website of the Intraders Platform: 
https://www.intraders.org/news/ot/the-pluralistic-approach-of-human-rights-a-limited-equalisation/

*Hristina Crenn is a bachelor student of Law at Paris 1 Panthéon – Sorbonne University (France) and History and Political Science and International Relations at Ibn Haldun University (Turkey). 

Column: “The Pluralistic approach of Human Rights: A Limited Equalisation?”   

General overview of Human Rights 

The era of Human Rights has been marked by an extensive legal evolution. The normativity of the legal texts started to be ambiguous over time. Legally, rights exist. Politically, rights survive. Legal provisions are crafted by many legal experts, mainly legislators. Political rules are dictated by a single individual (Head of a State or a Prime Minister). In another words, the legal rights are in the hands of the public functionaries, while the political system is regulated by a single individual deciding for the fate of the state. The Constitutional approach of human rights englobes the existence of various rights guaranteed by the mechanism of supremacy of the state social experiment or more precisely, the superpower of the state apparatus. Over time, the hierarchical mode of categorising Human Rights provoked the emergence of negative phenomena in the society such as the increase of the poverty level, a limited access to food and water, the impossibility to attend a regular educational curriculum and the manifestation of unhealthy modes of life due to lack of resources. 

Refugees 

The most significant normative document is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). What is the perception about the UDHR on a domestic level? The remembrance of the notion of rights? Are the nationals of a peculiar country informed about the existence of their rights? Martin Luther King Jr. stated explicitly that freedom is a long-term objective that is hardly attainable : “Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor, it must be demanded by the oppressed”[1]. Unfortunately, refugees are the most undermined category by the host countries. Generally, among  refugees there are plenty of educated people who can contribute greatly for the well-being of the economy of the country. Temporary protection, educational opportunities and scholarships, the delivery of a residence permit are among many of the legal mechanisms that refugees can benefit from. On the other hand, the worrying level of racism in some Western countries is the main generator of internal conflicts and riots. Nelson Mandela reflected the essence of human rights as the fundamental cornerstone of the humanity: “To deny people their human rights is to challenge their humanity”[2]. There arises the question of the direct applicability of international conventions, human rights treaties and regional human rights instruments or in another words international provisions versus national laws. The question of legal conflict among the hierarchy of norms is inevitable. Does such primacy of International mechanisms categorise rights? The answer isn’t clear enough. 

The idea of Universalism rejects the elements of nationalism. The approach of Universalism promotes the values of Multiculturalism. Thus, the multicultural aspect of human rights is interdependent with the notion of equalisation. Universalism is an advantage in terms of the promotion of the cultural heritage of a peculiar country. Therefore, Multiculturalism reflects the necessity of respecting and accepting the existence of diversity. If there is diversity, the logic of the notion of equality or equalisation is completely manifested, especially when the notion of ‘everyone’ in the universal human rights declarations is the equivalent word for the notion of ‘equality’. In practice the notion of ‘everyone’ is neglected by the negative influence of racism and nationalism.  This is the core textual conflict. The 1st article of the UDHR reminds us of the paramount importance of the dignity of individuals: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”[3]. The basic values are legally guaranteed, but in practice, they are quite often violated or not properly implemented. 

Women’s Rights as Human Rights 

The Legal pluralism in the recent decades is related also to the massive emergence of the concept of Women’s Rights. Undoubtedly, Women’s Rights were mentioned in the French Declaration of the Woman and the Citizen promulgated in 1791. Moreover, this Declaration was drafted by the prominent French Woman of Letters, Olympe de Gouges. Thus, the French Revolution was provoked by the famous Women’s March on Versailles on October 5, 1789.  Since then, Women’s Rights are Human Rights. The trajectory of emancipation and political participation was a flagrant testimony for the saying: ‘Women’s Rights as Human Rights’. 

To conclude, we could notice that there is a pluralistic approach that reliably enforces the existence of a limited equalisation of human rights that is often quite obliterated. 

[1] Phrase coined by Martin Luther King Jr. 

[2] Phrase coined by Nelson Mandela 

[3] The 1st article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

2. Column: “A travel story of Sarajevo – Sarajevo through the eyes of a foreign traveler”

MediaPulse Production (Sarajevo), 2020

*Hristina Crenn is a bachelor student of Law at Paris 1 Panthéon – Sorbonne University (France) and History and Political Science and International Relations at Ibn Haldun University (Turkey). 

Column: “A travel story of Sarajevo – Sarajevo through the eyes of a foreign traveler” 

Source website: https://www.pulse.ba/index.php/pulse-travel/3238-a-travel-story-of-sarajevo-sarajevo-through-the-eyes-of-a-foreign-traveler 

Source website: https://www.intraders.org/news/ot/a-travel-story-of-sarajevo-sarajevo-through-the-eyes-of-a-foreign-traveler/ 

Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/travel-story-sarajevo-through-eyes-foreign-traveler-hristina-crenn/?trackingId=0AuCpbQMQ%2F69ePoRuoHp7Q%3D%3D 

“I visited Sarajevo in July 2019. I was impressed by the marvellous memorial monuments dedicated to the innocent victims of the war – pain that we should never forget. Remembering their efforts, existence and identity means contributing greatly for the preservation of the international peace and security. The innocent war victims were our brothers and sisters part of our global human family. Forgetting them is an intentional betrayal for the whole humanity and our common sense of empathy. May the horrors of the war never repeat again. Hope never dies”. 
(A message from Hristina Crenn) 

History is a perpetual commencement. The cultural features of Sarajevo are unprecedentedly unique as a reflection of the existant original symbiosis of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian influences. The rhythm of the heart of Sarajevo vibrates around the impeccable charm of the city center, the wonderful smell of the delicious ‘Ćevape’ (kebap), the ambrosial flavour of the ‘baklava’ (Turkish delight) in the old town and the numerous historical monuments that constitute the soul of transitional justice. More precisely, Sarajevo is a veritable melting-pot of the Balkan region. 

The Museum of Childhood reflects the painful journey of the survivors and heroes of the war atrocities. The universal message of this museum is the preservation of children’s memory as a constant reminder of the necessity to establish the indispensable existence of peace through the prism of time. Remembrance is the perennial mechanism of transitional justice that portrays simultaneously the fundamental process of constructing the durability of peace. 

In addition to the cultural trajectory of Sarajevo, there is the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina as the most emblematic cultural institution of the country that represents the perfect labyrinth for History lovers. Diving deeply in the historical past of our ancestors is the infinite journey of collecting the various pieces of the unsolvable puzzle called life. The various memorial monuments encompass the eagerness for preserving the values of tolerance, patience, religious harmony, common consciousness and most notably ensuring the well-being of the inhabitants. Thus, the significant presence of cultural diversity of the Jewish, Christian and Muslim communities depicts the colourful centennial history of mutual harmony established meticulously over time. 

The most distinguished memorial center is the Children’s Square of Sarajevo as a vivid remembrance of the innocent souls and victims of the merciless and hostile war acts. Walking in the park of the square and reading the carved marble inscriptions containing the names of the murdered children generates moments of sadness, tearfulness, emotions, anger and perplexity at the same time. Sadness for the deceased children, anger for the oppressors. The multiple meanings of the word Justice refer to the slowness of the obsolete jurisdictional mechanisms that fail to grant reparations to the families of the victims within a specific period of time due to the absence of reciprocal research of evidence for establishing the truth. 

The most incredible place of the city is the monument of the ‘Eternal flame’ that literally ‘prolonges’ the life of the innocent victims through the lenses of the phenomenon of remembrance. Sarajevo is definitely the place everyone must visit, at least once in a lifetime.

3. Column: “The Mosaics of ancient Heraclea Lyncestis Macedonia – Elements of a colorful recorded history”

MediaPulse Production (Sarajevo), 2020

*By Hristina Crenn 

*Column published on the website of Media Pulse Production House of Sarajevo: https://pulse.ba/index.php/pulse-lifestyle/3472-the-mosaics-of-ancient-heraclea-lyncestis-macedonia-elements-of-a-colorful-recorded-history 

*Column published on the website of the InTraders Platform: https://www.intraders.org/news/ot/the-mosaics-of-ancient-heraclea-lyncestis-macedonia-elements-of-a-colorful-recorded-history/ 

*Hristina Crenn is a bachelor student of Law at Paris 1 Panthéon – Sorbonne University (France) and History and Political Science and International Relations at Ibn Haldun University (Turkey). 

Column: “The Mosaics of ancient Heraclea Lyncestis Macedonia – Elements of a colorful recorded history” 

The art of crafting historical imprints is probably the most valuable heritage of the Roman Era. Therefore, the Roman mosaics are wonderful masterpieces of the craftsmen of the epoch depicting the real conception of the society. The motifs of the mosaics include animal portraits reflecting peculiar meanings. As we know, the Roman world was a polytheistic construction of divinely appointed gods and goddesses. The traditional values and customs promoted largely the importance of the rulers. The kings represented the will of the gods. Moreover, they served as an intermediary between the gods and the people. A unique portrait of the symbol of power of the central administration present in the periphery of the Roman Empire. 

The primordial aspect of the Roman Art is shaped by the existence of floor mosaics. Thus, the most famous Roman mosaics are the ones excavated in the archaeological city of Heraclea Lyncestics (nowadays Bitola). Bitola is one of the cosmopolitan cities of the southern part of Macedonia. Heraclea Lyncestis as a Roman Municipium was constructed roughly around the 4th century BC. The city was located on the crucial trade route Via Egnatia. Overtime, the famous phrase ‘All the routes lead to Rome’ emerged. The floor mosaics are incredibly decorated with colourful stone tiles representing the essence of the diverse animal portraits. The Roman craftsmen were very skilled and talented. 

The rectangular shape of the floor mosaics is a fascinating demonstration of the sensitivity of the Roman art and culture. The natural elements present on the mosaics reveal the secrets of the local observations of the harmonious cycle of the nature. Trees, birds, leaves, flowers and animals are the main figures of the theatrical scene of the mosaics. A structural emphasis of the four seasons of the year is widely noticeable as well. The popular saying that ‘the strong will survive and the weak will perish’ is vividly represented on the mosaics: the tiger attacking the deer and the lion attacking the bull. Indeed, such animal fights explain the veritable position of the state power based on the hierarchical structure of the society and the strong place of the Church. Some interesting local beliefs mention that the process of emancipation was prevalent by following strict traditional rules. For example, one of the interesting stories or myths were that a young boy had always to hunt a lion in order to become an adult. The transition from adolescence to adulthood was socially determined. 

The floor mosaics are the remains of an early Christian Roman Cathedral in Heraclea Lyncestis known as the Small Basilica and the Great Basilica. The excellent preservation of the Basilicas signifies abundantly about the longevity of the Roman art. The astonishingly beautiful columns around the Basilicas testify about the process of urbanisation or city planning. The Romans were pioneers in this matter by establishing aqueducts, forums and legal courts.  
Only by remembering the beauty of the past, we can never forget the history of one of the greatest world civilisations in terms of cultural transmission and legal enterprise. If you travel in the southern part of Macedonia, visit the city of Bitola and discover the colourful mosaics of Heraclea Lyncestis.

%d bloggers like this: